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This is an important article in that it shows how Germany established bilingual teaching programs nearly three decades ago in underdeveloped countries and have been able to share the benefits of that education with their own citizens as well as the citizens of those countries where it was implemented. 53 -- 67 Bilingual Education in Los Angeles According to the Los Angeles Times articles, "Hundreds Wait for Bilingual Education," by Louis Sahagun and Nick Anderson (October 23, 1998), there are hundreds of students awaiting arrangements for bilingual classes; these students' parents have petitioned the Los Angeles (LA) school system to provide the resources and facilities their children need to learn the English language outside of total immersion classrooms. Krashen admits that there are still a number of problems associated with bilingual education that need to be addressed. [Read More] References "Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U. Retrieved June 30, 2009, from National Association for Bilingual Education (2004A). " Retrieved June 30, 2009, from education/Perhaps, here, the most telling words seem to be "the more intelligent class," "the better class," and "those of their countrymen who come here with good intentions." Indeed, one has to wonder which groups of immigrants would not wish to be considered as representatives of these words. Retrieved from Web site on October 13, 2004 education Krashen, Stephen. The main argument to keep Bilingual Education in the schools is to promote a solid sense of culture in a growing minority population. This ensured grade-level content learning in most academic subjects, but still allowed for ESL instruction, and social studies content that reinforced their home cultures. bilingual educated students are more likely to continue education past high school, increase their chances of professional careers, have competitive academic achievement scores, improved social skills and a stronger interest in school education programs. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_Darling-Hammond, L. It's Latino Speaking Parents Speaking out of Bilingual Education. he watershed for these two approaches appears to be a long-term focus vs. he policy problem associated with English as second a language academic programs is fundamentally two-fold: o address the need for acceleration of the development of English language skills and linguistic…… Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. P 21 Background Information Baker High School serves a diverse community, and consists of about 50% Caucasian, 20% African American, 20% Hispanic, and 10% of students from other ethnicities including Asian and Pacific Islander. (2000) Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development. One strategy suggests the development of a "grow-your-own" program, a strategy which works well in rural and sparsely-populated areas.Cortina, R.; (2010) Empowering indigenous languages and cultures: The impact of German bilateral assistance in Latin America, European Education, Vol. This article examines the impact of Proposition 227 which provides an alternative to the total immersion approach by offering classes bilingual classes taught in English with support in their native language. The largest of these is the accessibility of books in either language to children taking part in bilingual programs. In bilingual programs, particularly, it is not only a source of subject knowledge, but also of comprehensible input that is a valuable basis for transference as well as first-language development. Certainly, if an avocation against bilingual education will allow them full membership into a class of people who are "intelligent," of "better class," and "with good intentions," it would be tempting to say the least. Retrieved from Web site on October 13, 2004 Reader1 Farlex. "Blingual Education: Arguments for and Arguments Against." Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved from Web site on October 13, 2004 (1972), for example, found that children who are exposed to a bilingual environment from an early age are more skilled at learning new words and their meanings in their first language. Since there is no official language in the United States, forcing any population to speak one language or the other seems unjust, especially considering how this country was founded and built by immigration. Also, bilingual teachers were paired with grade-level standard curriculum teachers to discuss the individual student's different rates of progression and to create an effective, evolving curriculum that supported both ESL and traditional academic instruction. "Integrated Bilingual Education: An Alternative Approach." Bilingual Education Journal. The government interest, certification procedures and selection process of hiring qualified teachers is critical. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals? (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. "Controversy over the National Research Council Report: Does Biligual The world is changing and recent influxes of immigrants into America have presented a dilemma for educators. [Read More] The tendency is to think of bilingual education as focusing on Hispanic students, but this is decidedly a limited perspective (Haas, 2009). Over the past five years, Baker has improved its overall performance in terms of measurable outcomes such as test scores and retention rates. There are about 1100 students enrolled on average every school year, and a total of 95 full-time teachers working at Baker High. The study found that while the students sought out information from a variety of sources, the sources they found most valuable were parents, friends, teachers, and school counselors. Where do rural high school students go to find information about their futures? Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(2), 172-181. Recruitment begins early, with paraprofessionals and clerical support staff who are already working in minority school districts.The move to replace bilingual education with English immersion programs is perhaps understandable in the light of mixed research findings on the efficacy of bilingual education (Rothstein, 1998). "Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling." Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998. Patrinos and Velez (2009) found that educational costs in Guatemala were actually…… Even so, the methodology of teaching second languages, as a separate study from general pedagogy, is even more recent. 1) And in the era of globalization, there is an increasing awareness in the United States of the role that Chinese-based multinational firms are having on the business culture and…… This report is designed to provide Governor Brewer with the best possible information regarding the Navajo people, their language, the issues both positive and negative that may be present in this negotiation, and how the law of the state will be affected by this issue. (A Critique of Transitional Bilingual Education and English Immersion) Bilingual education is a topic that is very controversial in the current American education scenario. Montano, Theresa, Sharon H, Ulanoff, Rosalinda Quintanar-Sarellana, and Lynne Aoki. This does not mean, it should be noted, that foreign language education should be banned, not that supplemental or resource room help in the English language should not be accorded to students who require such assistance. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. Nevertheless, bilingualism is a personal experience and the relationships involved with language differences vary from person to person and there is no way…… (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_Darling-Hammond, L. For example, public schools in California enrolled recently arrived immigrants from 136 different countries in 1994, but bilingual teachers were certified in only 17 languages - 96% of them in Spanish. Background/History Bilingual Classes book entitled Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling explains that bilingual education refers to "the education of children whose home language is not English." (Brisk) According to an article in…… Immersion Assimilation is a focus for proponents of immersion programs in which students receive instruction only in English. [Read More] Immigration Education in California Few issues create long-lasting controversy, the type of controversy that engages nearly every member of society regardless of their economic, ethnic, intellectual, political, religious, or social background. In one of the most poignant addresses to congress, in this case Montana, one of the congressmen demonstrate the fight, in every state for the development of quality schools for Native Americans. More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…… Keywords: elderly Hispanics, patients, medication adherence, bilingual interpreters, treatment, patient-provider communication, healthcare providers.
I believe implementing bilingual education using the two-way immersion model in school’s curriculum will help produce better citizens for our society.
Research Strategy The main component of my research strategy was using two online databases: Google Scholar and Trinity Online Resources. I searched phrases such as “two-way immersion” and “two-way immersion bilingual program.” While reading the abstract of several articles, I decided it will be helpful to use articles that discussed the two-way immersion model itself so that I can get a better understanding of it and its goals.
Relevance: Bilingual education is a controversial topic in the field of education.
Today, schools are flooded with students that have limited English proficiency.
[Read More] Bilingual Education America is a land of immigrants and has, therefore, always required bilingual education programs in some form or the other. Consider, for example the remarks of 1996 Republican Presidential nominee Bob Dole, who asserted that teaching English is meant "to speed the melting of our melting pot," and that "...e must stop the…… And while there are additional costs to bilingual classrooms, proficiency in a second language helps students gain admission to universities as well as to be more competitive in the job market. [Read More] Cultural Impact: This prioritization of education may perhaps best be validated by the cultural impact levied by the Chinese immigrant an descendent populations of the United States. Achievement test scores revealed that minority students tested way below that of Caucasian students. One of the topics of quite often-heated discussion is the way in which English, as a language should be taught to Americans, whose mother tongue is not English. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. Although the different English and Greek scenarios elicited different responses, when speaking about their feelings the study subjects were able to delve into both vocabularies to find the right word to express their ideas. Impact of media context on consumers' responses to code-switched advertising. This is a primary focus of the work as her father resists the English language and he is unable to accept it within his household. The discussion will begin with background information about bilingual classes. During the time of the public brouhaha of the Umz Initiative, one teacher reported that, "I have had 32 different languages spoken in my classroom over a 25-year period. The incoming Principal ended up being almost the opposite in terms of disposition, leadership style, and educational philosophy. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society." Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. First of all, as school counselors were cited as an important resource for information, colleges need to work with counselors to make sure they have up-to-date information. (2010) explain that "erroneous information can lead to unrealistic expectations that may cause students to select goals and take actions that can…… This paper examines patient-provider communication between these patients and healthcare providers.
In fact, bilingual education programs have existed in America since the late eighteenth century, when European immigrant children received educational instruction in their native languages. 50 The factors affecting cost are numerous and not always easily identifiable; in addition to the purchasing of bilingual textbooks and other instructional supplies, there is often a perception that bilingual instruction leads to a greatly increased workload and number of class hours, and therefore a greater overall strain on the often-tight budgets of public education institutions and districts (Mora 2006). "English language learners." Editorial projects in education research center. Students who become bilingual early on in school will bring those skills to the workplace and improve workplace productivity. The author provides a broad overview of the complexities involving teaching students in two languages at once and various possible ways to go about doing this. Retrieved from Bilingual Education Methods: Pros and Cons Once upon a time, perhaps, the art of teaching was relatively strait-forward. The Chinese cultural impact today is felt in the population's extremely high level of visibility in the worlds of small business ownership and corporate leadership. In 2002, there were over 286,000 Chinese-owned firms in the U. Children of welfare recipients had lower test scores as well. Mahoney, Kate, Marilyn Thompson, and Jeff Mac Swan. This is particularly so with foreign immigrants as their assimilation of English eases their assimilation into the culture of America. The study suggested that "1) one's emotional reaction shifts with language (and cultural context) and (2) all emotion terms (and reactions) are available to bilingual speakers, almost regardless of the context" (Panayiotou 2004: 132). This seems to confuse the girl in the poem, yet it does not disturb her. The paper will also contain a current evaluation of the situation. Eighty-four languages are spoken in our district" (Anonymous, 1998). According to the book, studies have shown non-native speaking students or students who have special needs physical or behavioral struggle depression because they are in a different country and away from family. Lives on the Boundary by Mike ose The achievements of ose with his students were successful and exceptional because most of his students were in the circumstances he was once in the discredits most of the educational fallacies and stereotypes that are applied on remedial students and literacy. The new Principal, called Skinner for purposes of maintaining anonymity, introduced a series of…… Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education. The evaluation is carried out to determine the role and significance of bilingual interpreters in promoting medication adherence among elderly Hispanic patients aged 50-75 years.[Read More] Bilingual Education The first federal Bilingual Education Act (BEA) was signed into law in 1968. "A Critical Look at the Unz Intitiative: 'English for the Children." San Francisco State University. In addition, these factors greatly affect student engagement, as it is difficult to engage students without the resources to run an effective class. Faculty have many concerns going into the bilingual classroom. Classifying community colleges: How rural community colleges fit. This need is even more vital, considering the fact that an estimated 40% of American public school students are not Caucasian.This study sought to determine what effects the BEA had on local and state school districts in California, some who had previously initiated programs to address the Limited English Speaking (LES) students who were becoming an integrated part of the educational system in California. The National Association for Bilingual Education (2004) notes that teachers in a bilingual classroom do not have an easy job. wo main educational philosophies and lines of research prevail. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2007(137), 5-17. In comparison, only 12% of teachers are from racial and ethnic minorities.It is also evident that the issue must be resolved so that all of the children in this nation are able to receive the education needed to become viable members of society. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-ay Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169 . Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169 . (Leon, 2001) Jay Greene belonging to the Manhattan Institute employed more accurate statistical instruments compared to those employed in the earlier researches and discovered that bilingual education possess encouraging effects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston. This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion (SEI), by which students are to learn English only by means of…… Moreover, if a student asked to be transferred to a mainstream class he or she did not receive approval. So far, nothing seems to be out of the ordinary, but the strange thing is that they've been put to learn alongside Chinese speaking students also involved in bilingual programs. In Part III, the problem of immigration education in California and the probable causes is outlined. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations and potential solutions. Entrepreneurship: Foundations help immigrants start up their own businesses in America. Apples to apples: An evaluation of charter schools serving general student populations. However, the NSW policy stipulates a standard procedure where professionals such as bilingual calls are invited to offer interpretive services under such circumstances.He inferred that attempts to eradicate the use of local language in teaching does damage to the children by refuting them access to beneficial methods. (2000) "Defining Success: Quality Bilingual Education" LAB at Brown University. (9 February, 1998) "Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students. Accessed on 26 November, 2004 In Chapter 4 of the work the authors suggest that teachers act as catalysts, engaging students and enabling them to achieve the best use for their multiple language skills. [Read More] Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. The motive for this is that the only available places that the black students could fill had been in the Chinese bilingual classes. Immigrants, upon receiving citizenship, have the same rights to own businesses in America as Native Americans. The inherent challenge limits the LEP patient’s receipt of primary and preventative care.Recently, however, the issue of bilingual education appears to have grown somewhat contentious. A.: The Paradox of Bilingual Education." Social Justice. It is primarily the transitional costs, however, that many communities view as a barrier to implementing bilingual education; the reallocation of funds for such a purpose is highly unpopular in areas where students are not receiving basic educational needs already (Hu 2008; Mora 2006; NABE 2009). Speaking multiple languages offers a competitive edge in the job market and provides a cultural bridge for successful workplace relations. He also touches on the important issue of how to maintain the viability of minority languages. Each teacher used their own style, or that which had been handed down to them by those they learned from. As the text by Golden Venture (2009) reports, "Chinese immigrants and Chinese-Americans have contributed much to the U. S., employing more than 649,100 workers, and generating more than 5 billion in revenue. The comparison of the standardized test scores between Black and Hispanic students are evidence that Limited English Proficiency is a significant…… "The Condition of English Language Learners in Arizona: 2004." Arizona State University, 2004. The number of immigrants is increasing day by day especially from Asia and Asian immigrants constitute more than twenty five percent of all foreign immigrants. Their use of different linguistic tropes also highlighted how language and culture were inexorably intertwined, given that the subjects' expressed emotional responses were substantially different, depending on whether the scenario was presented as about a Greek or…… She understands that it is her father who fails to understand both her love for English and undying love for her father. The discussion will also present a casual argument of the topic and a counterclaim. With this level of diversity, teachers who are frustrated by the bureaucracy of educational institutions and the lag of simply choose to "just teach in the way that you know is effective" (Anonymous, 1998). "Psychologist David Pillemer has analyzed memories of school, and suggests that such memories have much to tell us about students' perception of success or failure. He also shows how one can succeed in life despite of the background as it is seen when he becomes a teacher and later a director at UCLA The main theme in this book is to show how life can be hard for the remedial students who he argues that they do not fail as a result of intelligence and poor skills but due to limited opportunity and little understanding. [Read More] Klotz 266) the standards of the system have had to rely on standardized accountability curriculum to attempt to make this cooperative concept work. State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The project will be implemented in an outpatient clinic and community center that provides care to different kinds of patients including elderly Hispanics.This is evident by the initiatives taken by the States of California, Arizona, and Massachusetts to replace bilingual education with English immersion programs, and the likelihood of other States soon addressing the issue (Lipka, 2002). The study conducted of Guatemalan bilingual education programs speaks to this issue to some degree, though its ramifications in that country are quite different tan what is seen in the United States. California association for bilingual education official website. Because of this, demand for bilingual speakers in the workplace is increasing and bilingual communication skills increase economic…… Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. hile certainly a certain degree of theory has always been involved in teaching (after all, the so-called Socratic method of teaching was debated centuries before the birth of Christ, and is still cropping up as a controversial pedagogy), it was not until very recently that a great deal of academic attention was turned not just to the subject matter in schools, but to the way in which they were taught. The number of Chinese-owned businesses, mostly in professional, scientific and food-related services, grew 13.2% between 19, and are steadily rising." (Golden Venture, p. [Read More] Linguistics Bilingual Education, Oil, and the Navajo Nation: New challenges and opportunities in Arizona The question before the researchers was to find the best means of providing the State of Arizona with the rights to pursue geological surveys of land in the Four Corners region of Arizona. Each state has to decide how these immigrants are educated in English. Bilingual education should not be required in our nation's schools. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. This is consistent with a recent psychological study entitled, "Effects of Language Usage on the Emotional Experience of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilinguals" in which bilingualism does not appear to hinder the emotional experience of those children who are bilingual (Guttfreund 1990). But in any case, a shortage of qualified bilingual teachers usually makes it impossible. This discussion will seek to prove that bilingual education in its current form must be reformed or eliminated. Essentially, that means to many teachers that they must reach out to their students in whatever language makes them want to learn and be able to study (Haas, 2009). When I talk to people about their education, from factory workers to physicians, from middle-school to doctoral students, it is telling how many of them call up resonant and emotional memories of events in school that, they claim, have had a potent effect on so many things: their sense of their intelligence, their social competence, their bearing in public spaces" (p. Scholars argue whether this is the implication of the alienation to students who form the mainstream population or just one of the effects of being drenched in a multicultural…… He tells this through his own life experience to show how both social and economic forces play a big role in influencing performance and perception of the unprepared students. [Read More] References Rose Mike, 1990, Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared, Penguin Books publishers. The difficulties are also answered with community emphasis on technology and social growth as well a community involvement in schools and district affairs. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy. "A" for effort: evaluating recent state education reform in response to judicial demands for equity and adequacy. This project demonstrates that bilingual interpreters would help promote medication adherence and compliance with treatment among these patients.Bilingual Education Predicting the effect of bilingual education on student outcomes with the work done by Huddy and Sears, "Opposition to Bilingual Education: Prejudice or the Defense of ealistic Interests? The authors investigated the bases for parental prejudice against bilingual education; they did not investigate in any detail what the educational outcomes might be for the children involved. She is 16 and lives in a community where the Hispanic population is considerable. Shawn has accepted that he will be evaluated periodically.They made only incidental reference to the possibility that Latino, African-American or other minority students -- or even Anglos -- might experience diminished educational outcomes in the presence, or for that matter absence, of bilingual education. Cultural Case Study: Maria This cultural case study examines the language competencies, social and human capital assets of a Spanish immigrant to the U. Her family is supportive and engaged in her life and she receives substantial assistance from them. She is able to practice her L1 and her L2 all the time thanks to a school that is good at helping ELLs and a community that shares in her ethnic background where her L1 is still commonly used among the inhabitants. He does not show overt resistance to his evaluation, and he does not show overt excitement about it, either.Then, I began to come across articles that focused on individual programs designed using this model which inspired me to look at a variety programs in different contexts and compare and contrast their approaches.When using Trinity Online Resources, I searched the same phrases in addition to “two-way immersion AND kindergarten,” “two-way immersion AND elementary,” “two-way immersion AND history,” and “two-way immersion AND change.” Searching these phrases gave me limited or no resources to look at.