Level two measures (n = 16) had evidence from any two validity sources, and level three measures (n = 26) from only one validity source.
Reliability was reported in 32 (33%) of the studies, representing 13 of the 60 measures.
Internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) reliability was reported in 31 studies; values exceeded 0.70 in 29 studies.
Despite gains in the understanding of research utilization theoretically [3.0.
CO;2-9." href="/articles/10.1186/1748-5908-6-83#ref-CR3" id="ref-link-section-d9912e517"3, 4], a large and rapidly expanding literature addressing the individual factors associated with research utilization [5, 6], and the implementation of clinical practice guidelines in various health disciplines [7, 8], little is known about how to robustly measure research utilization.
Dunn specifically urged that greater emphasis be placed on step four (reliability and validity).
Psychometric Properties Of The California Critical Thinking Tests Christian Paradox Thesis
A decade later, Rich  provided a comprehensive overview of issues influencing knowledge utilization across many disciplines.
We located three theoretical papers explicitly addressing the measurement of knowledge utilization (of which research utilization is a component) [9–11], and one integrative review that examined the psychometric properties of self-report research utilization measures used in professions allied to medicine .
Within each of these papers, a need for conceptual clarity and pluralism in measurement was stressed.
Test-retest reliability was reported in 3 studies with Pearson's r coefficients 0.80.
No validity information was reported for 12 of the 60 measures.