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As women are primarily responsible for cooking, and as children often spend time with their mothers while they are engaged in cooking activities, women and young children are disproportionately affected.
These ambient concentration readings alone could mask individuals’ true exposure, as exposure may also vary with an individual’s proximity to the stove during periods when the stove is in use.
Ezzati, Saleh, and Kammen (2000) and Ezzati and Kammen (2001b) used personal monitors with real-time monitoring in rural Kenya over a two-year period.
Most of what we know about the relationship between air pollution and health comes from studies that look at the impacts of ambient air pollution levels in the developed world.
In fact, there is a substantial literature indicating that these ambient air pollution levels substantially affect human health, especially the health of infants and young children.
We then discuss the available evidence on the effectiveness of popular policy prescriptions to reduce IAP within the household.
Indoor air pollution (IAP) remains a potentially large global health threat.
For example, PMrefers to particulate matter with a diameter of less than or equal to 10µm; these particles are widely believed to pose the greatest health problems. The Effect of Air Pollution on Lung Development from 10 to 18 Years of Age.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for an acceptable annual 24-hour average of PM, and it was found that most households exceed China’s Indoor Air Quality Standards (Zhang and Smith, 2007). The New England Journal of Medicine, 357 (11): 1057-1067.
Dockery, (1995) find a positive relationship between adjusted mortality rates and concentrations of particulate pollution. Quantifying the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion on acute respiratory infections in developing countries.
In a pair of natural experiment designs, Chay and Greenstone (2003a and 2003b) find that higher concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSPs) are strongly associated with higher rates of infant mortality; they found that a 1% increase in ambient TSPs results in a 0.35% decrease in the fraction of infants surviving to 1 year of age. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109 (5): 481-488.