Reformers began to demand sewer systems and clean water."Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell.There were no public toilets in the streets or squares.Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, especially in the earlier stages of their development.
As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870." The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers, and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city.
A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is." The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste.
London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward.
Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem.
Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881.
Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure.Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution.Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times, when man created the first fires.Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act.Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness.Lake Karachay – named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth – served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s.Chelyabinsk, Russia, is considered the "Most polluted place on the planet".King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem; the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow.It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust.Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters.