In 327 BCE Alexander the Great invaded with his Macedonian army.
General (later Field Marshal) Ayub Khan became President in 1960 and allowed a form of guided ‘basic democracy’.
However, failure to win the 1965 war against India and accusations of nepotism and corruption undermined his position.
He undertook agrarian reform and the nationalisation of large sections of industry and the financial sector.
In July 1977 the army, under General Zia ul-Haq, intervened in the urban unrest.
Slowly a national Muslim identity emerged, championed by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817–89). As the subcontinent moved towards independence, it became clear that Hindu and Muslim interests could not be reconciled.
The campaign to establish an independent Muslim state came to prominence in the 1920s and 30s.These early civilisations reached their peak in the Indus valley cities, of which Harappa is the most notable.These societies had mastered town planning and pictographic writing.Different religions prevailed in turn: Buddhism (under the Mauryans), Hinduism and, with Arab conquest in the eighth century, Islam.Two main principalities emerged under Arab rule, that of al- Mansurah and that of Multan.Zia declared martial law and arrested Bhutto who was convicted, after a controversial trial, of conspiring to murder a political opponent.Despite international appeals, he was hanged in April 1979.The Ghaznarid sultans gained ascendancy in Punjab in the 11th century.The subsequent ascendancy of the Moghuls, who originated in Central Asia, lasted from 1536 to 1707; their rule lingered nominally until 1857.In the east, the Awami League of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman voiced the grievances of the Bengali population.Ayub Khan resigned in 1969 and power was taken over by General Yahya Khan, who in December 1970 held the first national elections in independent Pakistan.