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The resulting crude oil is accumulated in porous reservoir rocks that can either be limestone or sandstone.These reservoir rocks are then trapped in compact and impermeable rocks (without pores) called the cap rocks.Settlements formed around temporary railroad-workers' camps. Speculators created brand-new towns out of virgin prairie beside the gleaming rails.
The arrival of railroad transportation expanded Texas farmers' and ranchers' markets by providing faster and cheaper shipping of products.
Cattle raisers were no longer forced to trail their herds long miles to railheads in the Midwest.
The anaerobic microorganisms act slowly on the dead plants and animals in the absence of oxygen, forming a carbon-rich organic layer.
This organic layer along with the sediments is called the source rock (fine-grained shale).
Due to the overlying sedimentary layers, the organic layer is subjected to elevated temperature and pressure.
Because of this, distillation of organic material occurs, leading to the formation of crude oil and natural gas.
As we all know, crude oil is fossil fuel, found deep under the Earth's surface, trapped between the rock layers.
It is formed from the remains of plants and animals in the seas, after being subjected to extreme high temperature and pressure conditions for thousands of years.
Seismology is found to have a 10 percent success rate of discovering oil sites.
Other approaches for finding oil are satellite imaging, shallow drilling, sniffers (electronic noses to smell hydrocarbons), magnetometers, and gravity meters.